Kabylia

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The African continent from post-colonialism to decolonization: An inevitable historical process?

neo-colonialism

The colonialism of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century destroyed most of the ethnocultural entities of the African continent by making frontier trajectories without any foundation except the “sharing of a cake” between the different colonial powers.

Borders were drawn by soldiers on geographical maps without even setting foot in some areas. Sometimes they just had drawn straight lines by even ignoring geomorphological data. The words of Lord Salisbury, himself one of the great African “cake-shareers”, dispended with comment: “We have drawn to the map the regions where the white man had never set his foot. We have distributed to us mountains, rivers and lakes, barely embarrassed by this little difficulty that we never knew exactly where these mountains, rivers, or lakes were ”

The liberation movements of the beginning of the last century have accommodated themselves to these divisions which have created factitious nations without any homogeneity. However, for the sake of efficiency, the structuring of these liberation movements has taken into account regional specificities (this is the case of the Algerian national movement with the six historic wilayas).

The advent of independence, the new heterogeneous and sometimes antagonistic geopolitical groups, needed to quickly find founding myths to define nations by playing on primary anti-colonialism. Thus “Algeria” opted for an accelerated Arabization to get rid of the language of the former colonizer and an Islamization to the utterance, all with the precious help of “Nasserian Egypt”.

At the Conference of Heads of State and Government of the OAU (Organization of the African Union) in Cairo in 1964, one of the major problems to be resolved was conflicts related to border tracing. Indeed, several conflicts related to disputes on the contestation of borders drawn by colonialism. Other conflicts also concerned the internal borders in these new states stemming from colonialist divisions. At the instigation of the “Monrovia” group, the principle of the intangibility of borders in Africa was decided on 21/07 / 1964.This principle states declared that “all Member States undertake to respect the Existing borders at the time of independence “. This principle therefore prohibits Member States from expressing any territorial claim or wanting to change the colonial route.
For African leaders, this imperative concerns territorial claims from another state, but also aims to stifle the secessionist movements coming from within which could call into question the borders resulting from independence.

At the time of its adoption, some African leaders disagreed. They are known as the Casablanca group.

The President of Tanzania NYERERE (1962-1985) considered that this principle of intangible borders was “a cynical doctrine in its anti-universalism that the right of self-determination can be invoked only once, Against the colonial powers and, in no case, against the decolonized states ”

Bizarrely and contrary to a normal historical process or a state passes from a phase of “decolonization” to that of “post-colonization”, in the case of the African continent, the transition took place in several phases: Colonization, to “neo-colonialism” (false decolonization), to post-colonialism without ever reaching the stage “after colonization”.

The main reason being the neo-colonialism which sought to pacify and stifle conflicts by giving non-disinterested support to the “false decolonization” which presided over the destinies of the new administrative units which it had itself created.

This status quo, represented by the intangibility of the artificial borders resulting from colonialism, is in contradiction with international law and the charters of the United Nations supplemented, inter alia, by the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960.

What about the Kabyle question?

More than half a century after the independence of African countries, conflicts linked to artificial and ethnocultural borders have not ceased, despite the principle of intangibility and immutability.

Since the fall of the communist bloc and the disappearance of the organization of non-Alignment and the organization of the 77 … that it is necessary, or even vital, to complete the historical process of decolonization towards sovereign, independent states which will enable them to exercise their powers over geographically, politically and culturally homogeneous territories.

The exit ticket snatched by Eritrea in 1993 through a referendum that enshrines its independence from Ethiopia broke the principle of the intangibility of 1964 and allows other peoples without states to overcome a politico-juridic rended obsolete by the reality of the 21st century.

Kabylia can rely on international law to regain its sovereignty over its territory arbitrarily annexed by colonial France to its heterogeneous administrative creation “Algeria”.

The geopolitics resulting from the new data of colonialism has created states with antagonisms generating conflicts that can not be solved by simple measures of decentralization of power.

Algeria has always acted with Kabylie as a post-colonial force, as evidenced by the events of 1963 and 2001.

The Kabyle people became conscious of their colonized status and they clamored it without detour and without false pretenses. Henceforth, they also know that it is necessary to have a sovereign Kabyle State, the only guarantor of the perenniality of their language, their culture and all their material heritage and their bodiless heritage.

By Afalku Igectulen 

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This entry was posted on 16/12/2016 by in Kolonialism, Politikk and tagged , , , , , , , , .
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